Leather is a material made from the skin of animals, usually cows, but also sheep, goats, and pigs. It is used to make a variety of products, including clothing, furniture, and accessories. Leather is a durable material that can last for many years if cared for properly. There are several different types of leather, each with its own unique characteristics. Full-grain leather is the highest quality leather and is made from the top layer of the hide. It is the most durable and has the most natural look and feel. Top-grain leather is the second highest quality and is made from the second layer of the hide. It is slightly less durable than full-grain leather but still has a natural look and feel. Split-grain leather is made from the lower layers of the hide and is less durable than full-grain and top-grain leather. It is often used to make suede and is less expensive than other types of leather. Bonded leather is made from scraps of leather that are bonded together with a polyurethane or latex coating. It is the least expensive type of leather but is not as durable as other types.
Leather tanning is the process of treating animal hides to produce leather, a material that is both durable and flexible. The process involves soaking the hides in a solution of water and chemicals, which helps to remove the hair and other proteins from the hide. The hides are then treated with a variety of chemicals, such as tannins, which help to preserve the leather and give it its characteristic color. The hides are then dried and stretched, and then treated with oils and waxes to give the leather its desired texture and finish. Finally, the leather is dyed and finished with a variety of treatments, such as embossing, to give it a unique look and feel. Leather tanning is a complex process that requires a great deal of skill and experience, but the end result is a material that is both beautiful and long-lasting.